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Bulgaria; Crete; Albania; Rep of Macedonia;Serbia


Bulgaria; Crete; Albania; Rep of Macedonia;Serbia



Overview: Officially the Republic of Bulgaria . The name is created from the word, Bulgars. They were an extinct tribe of Turkic origin, which created the country. 

History: It was founded as the Republic of Bulgaria in the 7th century.Bulgaria did come under Ottoman rule. This lasted until the Russo-Turkish War. In 1878, the country was re-established as a constitutional monarchy. Then after World War II, Bulgaria became a communist state and part of the Eastern Bloc.

Capital: Sofia

Language: Bulgarian (the oldest written Slavic language and is written in the Cyrillic alphabet), Turkish, Roma

Food and Drink: Includes - vegetables, a salad known as shopska salata (шопска салата), musaka, banitsa (баница) ( a pastry), seafood, a piece of grilled mincemeat called kebapche (кебапче), spices, chicken, pork, a relish of peppers and tomatoes lyutenitsa (лютеница) and a soup called tarator (таратор).



Overview: A region of Greece, its name is nisos Kriti which means island of Crete. It was united with the rest of Greece in 1913. 

History: The island was discovered around 10,000 BC.

Capital: It has many names Heraklion, Heraklion, Iraklio, Iraklion, and in the past Handax and Candia.

Language: Cretan Greek, English

Food and Drink: Barley, birds, Kalitsounia (Cheese Pie), fruit, vegetables, grapes, dakos, Sarikopitakia (Cheese Pie), tomatoes, Loukoumades (fried dough served with ice-cream), fish, beef, nuts, cheese, honey, goat milk, and Raki ( which is a famous local drink).



Overview: Officially known as the Republic of Albania (locally it is known as Shqipëri). Albanians nod when they mean “no” and shake their head when they mean “yes”. 

History: The State of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. It was invaded by Italy in 1939. Then, in 1943, Albania became protected by Nazi Germany. In 1991 the 4th Republic of Albania was established.

Capital: Tirana

Language: Albanian. There are two main dialects - Tosk, spoken in the south, and Gheg, spoken in the north.

Food and Drink: Albanian foods include - gjellë (stew), shrimp, seafood, salads, lamb, veal, Fëgesë, tomatoes, sweet and savoury pies, cucumbers, green peppers, and olives.

Republic of Macedonia


Overview: Known officially as the Republic of Macedonia. Very close to the capital city is a place called Matka (meaning womb). This is named after Mother Mary, (the mother of Jesus Christ). It is purely dedicated to mothers giving new births and maintaining legacies for generations. 

History: The history of Macedonia starts with the kingdom of Paeonia. In 6th century BC it was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. This followed in 4th century when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Macedonia. Following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, Macedonia then came under Serbian rule.  It was part of the former Yugoslavia, but gained independence in 1991. After the Second World War (1945) it became a republic.

Capital: Skopje

Language: Macedonian and Albanian mainly. Also Turkish, Roma,  and Serbian.

Food and Drink: Cuisine here includes lots of fruit, vegetables, a variety of herbs, dairy products, wines, Musaka, Tavèe-Gravèe, Kebapi, local alcohol ( including  rakija - their own brandy), garlic sauce, tulumba, kukurec ( lamb), shirden and potato stew.


Overview: Officially the Republic of Serbia. Silver lake, also called Serbian sea, is the largest lake in Serbia. Europe’s largest gorge, the Djerdap Gorge is situated in Serbia, with the Danube River flowing through it

History: In 3rd Century BC Belgrade was a Celtic settlement. Later it was a Roman fortress ( 18 Roman Emperors were born in Serbia). Serbia gained independence on November 25th 1918. The Republic of Serbia was formed on June 6th 2006.

Capital: Belgrade (Beograd)

Language: Serbian ( and dialects there of), Albanian

Food and Drink: Some of the favourites one finds in this country include - drinking coffee, pleskavica (pork or beef burgers); punjena paprika (stuffed peppers); Schnitzel is kara georgievski; pihtije (aspic, which is based on a duck or pork); pasulj (a dish based on beans, peppers and onions); proja (grain bread with white cheese); paprika (red pepper stew with meat or chicken); and chevapchichi (sausages of minced meat). Serbia is the largest raspberry exporter in the world.